Is Helicobacter pylori Stirring up Trouble in Your Stomach?By: Jacqueline PerezDecember 9, 2010

Helicobacter Pylori ((http://www.equidblog.com/uploads/image/Helicobacter.jpg)
Helicobacter Pylori ((http://www.equidblog.com/uploads/image/Helicobacter.jpg)




Abstract:
Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common bacteria known to cause infections worldwide. Since the discovery of this bacteria is fairly new there are still many questions left unanswered about the characteristics this bacteria contains. H. pylori is usually transmitted among people living within the same household. It is contracted through sharing eating utensils, drinking the same water, and other forms of person -to- person contact. H. pylori has been known to be a contributing factor in the development of stomach cancer. Many studies show that those individuals that carry this bacteria have an increased risk of developing gastric cancer down the line if they do not take an active stance in controlling this bacteria There are several methods which can help treat people with H. Pylori which can then help lower their risk of developing stomach cancer.

Introduction:
After reading about Helicobacter pylori in my microbiology textbook and learning about it in class I wanted to discover more about this bacteria because I felt that the information I had was very brief. The key points that I learned in class were that this bacteria is somewhat new and that it has been associated with causing stomach cancer within its victims. My reasoning for researching this topic was to learn more about how this bacterium causes gastric cancer and what treatments currently exist to aid those who currently have it in their stomach. Since stomach cancer is such a vicious cancer to fight, I felt that it was important to research this topic and inform others on how they can try to prevent the transmission of H. pylori. The most significant findings in my research was that if detected early and with proper treatment, H. pylori can be maintained and can reduce the risk of a person developing gastri
Warren and Marshall
Warren and Marshall
c cancer in the future.

Discussion:
Helicobacter Pylori:
This bacteria was first described by Warren and Marshall in 1983 (Vale, 2010).H. pylori is a gram negative spiral-shaped microaerophilic bacterium which has been known to neutralize human’s stomach acid which therefore allows this bacteria to thrive and develop within the stomach (Case, 2010). The growth of this bacteria causes the immune system to commence a response which in turn can lead to the development of stomach cancer (Case, 2010). *picture of Warren and Marshall provided by:(http://msnbcmedia4.msn.com/j/msnbc/Components/Photos/051003/051013_nobel_hmed_7a.grid-6x2.jpg)


(http://cbs.ym.edu.tw/cbs-01/images/stories/cbs/digitallife/Epidemiology.gif)
(http://cbs.ym.edu.tw/cbs-01/images/stories/cbs/digitallife/Epidemiology.gif)



Transmission:
The transmission of this bacteria is still not fully understood however; scientists speculate that H. pylori is most likely transmitted by living in overcrowded unsanitary conditions through oral to oral, gasto to oral and faecal to oral transmission(Vale, 2010). Evidence suggest that poor hygiene is a contributing factor in contracting this bacteria and that most infections occur in rural developing areas (Vale, 2010). Individuals generally contract H. pylori during childhood yet there are some uncommon cases in which adults obtain this bacteria (Plummer, 2000). Due to the fact that most transmission occurs during childhood, it is crucial that this bacteria be detected early in order to prevent further damage to the stomach (Plummer, 2000).

http://www.healthyfellow.com/images/2009/05/pylori.png
http://www.healthyfellow.com/images/2009/05/pylori.png

Correlation to Stomach Cancer:
Infection with H. pylori is a contributing factor to the development of stomach ulcers which if left untreated could lead to a transformation of the gastric mucosa and can therefore be a precursor for gastric cancer (Sonnenberg, 2002). Helicobacter pylori promotes various alterations in gene expressions within gastric cells, this can further change structures inside of the stomach that encourage persistent infection as well as bacterial adhesion (Carvalho, 2008). This bacteria inspires neutrophil polymorphs as well as monocytes to create an extreme quantity of reactive oxygen metabolites which can disrupt DNA formation causing mutations as well as harm to the DNA structures (Chueng, 2008)
http://drugs.healthdiaries.com/spilledpills.jpg
http://drugs.healthdiaries.com/spilledpills.jpg

Treatment: The current treatment for those individuals infected with H. pylori is as follows: triple therapy with proton pumper inhibitor, amoxicillin and clarythromicin (Alazmi, 2010). Therapy usually lasts about 7 days and has been known to fail in about 20% of patients due to antibiotic resistance (Vale, 2010). It's importantant that the infected individual follow exactly what the treatment requires in order to get the best results (Alazmi, 2010). Failing to follow proper treratment could lead to an 80% risk of treatment being not fully effective (Alazmi, 2010). If done properly eradication therapy can remove the direct carcinogenic effect that H. pylori has (Ito, 2009).
Prevention:
Early detection os a key factor in preventing the formation of cancer caused by H. pylori (Chueng, 2008). Obliteration of this bacteria inhibits the development of gastric precancerous lesions and is the most promising approach in preventing cancer development (Chueng, 2008). Trying to live in a somewhat sanitary environment can also help reduce transmission of this disease given that this particular disease tends to be spread within unsanitary living conditions.

Quick Informative H. pylori Video:
H. pylori Video

About The Stomach:
Helicobacter Pylori



Video from:
http://www.videojug.com/interview/helicobacter-pylori
Sources Cited
1. Alazmi, W., Buhaimed, W., Al-Mekhaizeem, K., & Siddique, I. (2010). Efficacy of Standard Triple Therapy in the Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection: Experience from Kuwait. Digestive Diseases & Sciences, 55(11), 4. Retrieved November 20, 2010, from the Academic Search Premier database
2. Carvalho, A., David, L., Santos-Silva, F., Figueiredo, C., Ferreira, B., Gilmartin, T., et al. (2008). Helicobacter pylori induces β3GnT5 in human gastric cell lines, modulating expression of the SabA ligand sialyl--Lewis x. Journal of Clinical Investigations,118(6), 12. Retrieved November 20, 2010, from the Academic Search Premier database
3. Case, C., Funke, B., & Tortora, G. (2010). Microbiology: An Introduction (10 ed.). San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings.
4. Chueng, T. K., & Wong, B. (2008). Treatment of Helicobacter pylori and Prevention of Gastric Cancer. Journal of Digestive Diseases, 9(1), 6. Retrieved November 16, 2010, from the Academic Search Premier database
5. Ito, M., Tatsugami, M., Haruma, K., Chayama, K., Takata, S., Wada, Y., et al. (2009). Clinical prevention of gastric cancer by Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: a systematic review. Journal of Gastroenterology, 44(5), 7. Retrieved November 16, 2010, from the Academic Search Premier database.
6. Plummer, M., Pena, A., Vivas, J., Ponzetto, A., Lopez, G., Munoz, N., et al. (2000). Helicobacter Pylori and Stomach Cancer: a Case Control Study in Venezuela. Journal of Caner Epidemiology, 9, 4. Retrieved November 20, 2010, from the Academic Search Premier database
7. Sonnenberg, A. (2002). What To Do About Helicobacter pylori ? A Decision Analysis of its Implication on Public Health.Blackwell Science Ltd., 7(1), 7. Retrieved November 16, 2010, from the Academic Search Premier database
8. Vale, F., & Vitor, J. (2010). TransMission Pathway of Helicobacter pylori: Does Food Play a Role in Rural and Urban Areas?. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 138, 12. Retrieved November 16, 2010, from the Academic Search Premier database.